Dislocation & Subluxation

Definition
Dislocation is Condition where bones that usually meet at a joint, have completely lost contact with each other at the joint surface and are displaced. The most often dislocated joint are the shoulder, patella-femoral and ankle. While Subluxation, is partial dislocation of one of the bones of a joint. According to nature cause subluxation may happen to any joint. It can be shoulder Subluxation, patellar Subluxation, vertebral Subluxation, atlantoaxial Subluxation, hip Subluxation, etc.

Causes
Many causes, such as: Congenital, Trauma, Chronic osteoarthritis,Occupational hazards, Muscular weakness,Incorrect weight lifting, Lack of rest, etc

Signs & Symptoms
Sudden pain in the joint, swelling of the joint, Deformity of the joint, the joint may not function or painful, Nerves and blood vessels that pass near the joint may be damaged.

Orthotic Treatment
The treatment will be depends on the location of Dislocation or Subluxation. The main principle is to realign the joint. Hip abduction orthoses and Hip stabilization orthoses are use to provides appropriate anatomical alignment to positions the head of the femur in the acetabulum allowing for the ligaments, bone, and surrounding musculature to heal.
For knee joint dislocation or subluxation, prescribe the Knee Orthosis, either free knee or lock knee, depend on severity of Subluxation. For Ankle dislocation or subluxation, Solid Ankle Foot Orthosis is used.
Shoulder Stabilizer aids in prevention of excessive extension and abduction of the shoulder. Elbow orthosis for the elbow joint dislocation or subluxation. Thumb Immobilizer Orthosis, For Spine, Soft Orthosis or hard orthosis can be options, depending on the level and severity, such as TLSO, CTLSO, Hard Collar, and Soft Collar.
Complications

If not treated, Upper Limb Joint dislocation or subluxation may lead to: Medial rotational contracture of shouler joint, Vaglus deformity of elbow, Swan neck deformity finger. While in lower limb: Shortening, Lengthening, Genu Recurvatum. It may also affect the spine, such as Kyphosis Scoliosis.
Orthotic Treatment post complication
If the complication happens, then, the treatment is not only on the dislocation or subluxation of joint, but also to treat the contracture and deformity which arises due to untreated problems.

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